A Primer on Ray-Tracing: Shooting and Bouncing Ray Method
Ray-tracing is a promising alternative for Radio Frequency Planning particularly in urban areas. There are two fundamental techniques used for ray-tracing namely Shooting and Bouncing Rays and Method of Images. In this paper, we focus on the former and present simulation results for an urban scenario in the city of Helsinki. We also give an insight into how the Shooting and Bouncing Ray method can be implemented using basic linear algebra techniques. We show that ray-tracing can be used to evaluate the performance improvement attained through electromagnetic reflectors. Finally, we close the discussion by outlining the existing challenges and the way forward.
Orthogonal Minimum Shift Keying: A New Perspective on Interference Rejection
Co-Channel Interference is a classical problem in cellular systems that has been studied extensively and several methods have been proposed to overcome it. These include interference rejection techniques as well as joint detection techniques. We have previously proposed a joint detection technique for MSK-type signals that works quite well in certain conditions. In this paper, we formally present what we call Orthogonal MSK and postulate that if two MSK signals have a 90-degree phase offset between them then both can be detected successfully increasing the spectral efficiency two-fold. This technique works well even if the two signals are near equal power and have the same carrier frequency.
Why is MIMO Capacity in a Fading Environment Higher than in an AWGN Environment
A wireless channel suffers from two fundamental impairments; fading and noise. While fading is multiplicative, noise is additive. It is well-known that higher the noise, lower is the signal to noise ratio and lower the capacity. However, fading can be helpful in increasing the capacity when using multiple transmit and receive antennas. In this paper, we give an intuitive explanation for this. Anybody with a background in linear algebra and matrices can understand this.