A dipole antenna is a simple antenna that can be built out of electrical wire. The most common dipole antenna is a half wave dipole which is constructed from a piece of wire half wavelength long. The wire is split in the center to connect the feeding wires. The E-field of the antenna has a circular pattern along a plane which cuts the axis of the antenna perpendicularly and is similar to a figure of 8 in a plane along the axis of the antenna [3D pattern]. The exact E-field can be calculated as:
The MATLAB code for generating the above pattern is given below.
n=377; Io=1; r=10; lambda=0.3; k=(2*pi)/lambda; L=lambda/2; theta=0:0.01:2*pi; E=j*n*Io*exp(-j*k*r)*(1/(2*pi*r))*((cos(k*L*cos(theta)/2)-cos(k*L/2))./sin(theta)); polar(theta, abs(E))
Note that the above is true within an area at a sufficient distance from the antenna known as the far-field of the antenna. Closer to the antenna i.e. in the near-field the E-field expression is a bit more complex.
Author: John (YA)
John has over 15 years of Research and Development experience in the field of Wireless Communications. He has worked for a number of companies around the world including Qualcomm Inc. USA. He has an MS in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Tech USA and has published his work in international journals and conferences.