Monthly Archives: February 2023

Energy Produced by 1kWatt Solar Panel

I have been asked several times what is the energy produced by a 1 kW panel in a day or how many units of energy are produced over 24 hours. Let me first state that the product of power and time gives you the energy produced. So for a 24-hour period, we have 24 kWhr of energy produced, if the solar panel was producing peak power throughout the day. But we know that that is not the case. So for the time component of the above equation, we can use 5 hours, also called peak sun hours. This gives a total of 5 kWhr (1kW x 5 hours) of energy produced over a 24-hour period i.e. 5 units of energy are produced. In a month you can possibly produce 150 units. If the per unit rate is Rs.10, you can produce Rs.1500 worth of electricity with a 1 kW panel in a month.    

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Demystifying the Fourier Transform

The Fourier Transform is often used in Communication and Signal Processing to find the spectral content of a time-domain signal. The most common example is that of a sinusoid in the time domain, resulting in a sharply peaked signal in the frequency domain, also known as a delta function. A rectangular pulse in the time domain has a more complicated frequency domain equivalent, a sinc function. A rectangular pulse may be thought of as a combination of many sinusoids, hence its frequency domain equivalent is not that straightforward.

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Why is MIMO Fading Capacity Higher than AWGN Capacity

In a previous post, we have seen that MIMO fading capacity is much higher than AWGN capacity with multiple antennas. How is this possible? How can randomness added by a fading channel help us? In this post, we try to find the reason for this. Let’s assume the following signal model for a Multi Input Multi Output antenna system.


Here s is the NT by 1 signal vector, w is the NR by 1 noise vector and H is the NR by NT channel matrix. The received signal vector is represented by x which has dimensions of NR by 1. In expanded form this can be written as (assuming NR=4 and NT=4):

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