# Bit Error Rate of QPSK in Rayleigh Fading

So far we have considered the bit error rate (BER) of BPSK and QPSK in an AWGN channel. Now we turn our attention to a Rayleigh fading channel which is a more realistic representation of a wireless communication channel. We consider a single tap Rayleigh fading channel which is good approximation of a flat fading channel i.e. a channel that has flat frequency response (but varying with time). The complex channel coefficient is given as (a+j*b) where a and b are Gaussian random variables with mean 0 and variance 0.5. We use the envelope of this channel coefficient in our simulation as any phase shift is easily removed by the receiver.

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function[ber]=err_rate3(l,EbNo)
si=2*(round(rand(1,l))-0.5);
sq=2*(round(rand(1,l))-0.5);
s=si+j*sq;
n=(1/sqrt(2*10^(EbNo/10)))*(randn(1,l)+j*randn(1,l));
h=(1/sqrt(2))*((randn(1,l))+j*(randn(1,l)));
r=abs(h).*s+n;
si_=sign(real(r));
sq_=sign(imag(r));
ber1=(l-sum(si==si_))/l;
ber2=(l-sum(sq==sq_))/l;
ber=mean([ber1 ber2]);
return
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It is observed that the BER for a Rayleigh fading channel is much higher than the BER for an AWGN channel. In fact, for Rayleigh fading, the BER curve is almost a straight line!!!

Note:

1. The input EbNo to the function is in dB so it is converted into linear scale by 10^(EbNo/10).

2. Noise is added in a Rayleigh fading channel as well. Noise is introduced by the receiver front end and is always present.